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What Is an Emergency Response Situation?

It refers to a situation that requires the national government to take urgent measures for incidents in which many people are killed or injured by means similar to armed attack or situations in which people face a clear danger of such situations occurring.

“What specifically is an Emergency Response Situation?” “An Emergency Response Situation is a situation similar to armed attacks, such as terrorism. Depending on the kinds of facilities targeted and means of attack, the following examples of situations can be suggested.”
Classification by Type of Targeted Facility
Situations in which facilities having hazardous substances are attacked
Destruction of nuclear power establishments etc.
  Discharge of large amounts of radioactive substances causes people living in the vicinity as well as people who take in contaminated foods and drinks to be exposed to radiation.
Bombing of petrochemical complex, combustible-gas storage facility etc.
  Explosions or fire at these facilities cause damage to people, buildings and lifelines, disrupting socioeconomic activities.
Attack on ships carrying hazardous materials etc.
  Proliferation of hazardous materials causes damage to people living in coastal areas and disrupts socioeconomic activities, such as closure of harbors and shipping routes, and contamination of marine resources.
Situations in which facilities where many people gather and mass transportation systems are attacked
Bombing of facilities frequented by large numbers of people, railroad terminals etc.
  Bombing causes human suffering. If such facilities collapse, it will cause heavy damage.

Classification by Type of Means of Attack
Situations of attacks with substances capable of killing many people etc.
Explosion of dirty bombs* etc.
  Damage caused by shrapnel, flying objects, heat, and flames. If normal cell functions are disrupted by radiation, it could cause cancer in later years.
Dispersal of large amounts of biological agents
  Biological agents can be dispersed unnoticed by anyone. In cases where infected people move from one place to another during the incubation period of the biological agent and are later found to have been sprayed with the agent, the chances are that the damage has already spread to a wide area. If an attack is made with a biological agent that uses humans being as the medium, the damage caused by secondary infection is expected to spread to a wide area.
Dispersal of large amounts of chemical agents
  Chemical agents proliferate leeward by taking topography and weather condition into account. A nerve agent that is heavier than air, such as sarin, spreads as if hugging the ground.
*Dirty bomb
Bomb designed to cause radioactive contamination by spreading radioactive substances.
Situations in which attacks are made by using transportation means as a means of destruction
Suicide terrorist attacks using aircraft
  The occurrence of explosions and fires on aircraft causes damage to people, buildings and lifelines, disrupting socioeconomic activities.